There is a good, short, read by Kartik Hosanagar and Apoorv Saxena on hbr.com on why the first wave of AI efforts are bound to fail. Some highlights:
We believe that a similar story of early failures leading to irrational retreats will occur with AI. Already, evidence suggests that early AI pilots are unlikely to produce the dramatic results that technology enthusiasts predict. For example, early efforts of companies developing chatbots for Facebook’s Messenger platform saw 70% failure rates in handling user requests. Yet a reversal on these initiatives among large companies would be a mistake. The potential of AI to transform industries truly is enormous. Recent research from McKinsey Global Institute found that 45% of work activities could potentially be automated by today’s technologies, and 80% of that is enabled by machine learning. The report also highlighted that companies across many sectors, such as manufacturing and health care, have captured less than 30% of the potential from their data and analytics investments. Early failures are often used to slow or completely end these investments.
We suggest taking a portfolio approach to AI projects: a mix of projects that might generate quick wins and long-term projects focused on transforming end-to-end workflow. For quick wins, one might focus on changing internal employee touchpoints, using recent advances in speech, vision, and language understanding. Examples of these projects might be a voice interface to help pharmacists look up substitute drugs, or a tool to schedule internal meetings. These are areas in which recently available, off-the-shelf AI tools, such as Google’s Cloud Speech API and Nuance’s speech recognition API, can be used, and they don’t require massive investment in training and hiring. (Disclosure: One of us is an executive at Alphabet Inc., the parent company of Google.) They will not be transformational, but they will help build consensus on the potential of AI. Such projects also help organizations gain experience with large-scale data gathering, processing, and labeling, skills that companies must have before embarking on more-ambitious AI projects.
This all leads to the question of how best to recruit the resources for these efforts. The good news is that emerging marketplaces for AI algorithms and datasets, such as Algorithmia and the Google-owned Kaggle, coupled with scalable, cloud-based infrastructure that is custom-built for artificial intelligence, are lowering barriers. Algorithms, data, and IT infrastructure for large-scale machine learning are becoming accessible to even small and medium-size businesses.
Further, the cost of artificial intelligence talent is coming down as the supply of trained professionals increases. Just as the cost of building a mobile app went from $200,000–$300,000 in 2010 to less than $10,000 today with better development tools, standardization around few platforms (Android and iOS), and increased supply of mobile developers, similar price deflation in the cost of building AI-powered systems is coming. The implication is that there is no need for firms to frontload their hiring. Hiring slowly, yet consistently, over time and making use of marketplaces for machine learning software and infrastructure can help keep costs manageable.